medicinal trees and their uses - red cedar

30 Northeastern Medicinal Trees and Their Uses

Discover the healing secrets of Northeastern medicinal trees and their uses, from Alder to Witch Hazel. This article unveils the rich heritage and uses of these natural remedies, deeply rooted in the traditions of the Nipmuck (my tribe) and other Indigenous peoples. 

We explore the diverse medicinal properties of these trees, highlighting how each part, from bark to leaf, plays a role in traditional health practices. Emphasizing sustainable and ethical foraging, we adhere to basic principles of harvesting to ensure these natural treasures continue to flourish for generations. 

medicinal trees and their uses

Ethical Principles of Harvesting Tree Medicine

In the forests of the Northeast, where each tree stands as a testament to nature’s resilience and wisdom, the practice of gathering medicinal trees and their uses is more than just a task; it’s a sacred interaction between us and the earth. As we step into the woods, it’s essential to move with a sense of respect and intention, mindful of the delicate balance we’re part of.

When we talk about harvesting bark from medicinal trees and their uses, it’s not just about what we take, but how we take it. It’s crucial to remember that we should never harm the tree by taking bark from its trunk. This can hurt the tree, much like a wound can hurt us, and in some cases, it can even be fatal for the tree. Instead, we look to the branches, specifically the lower ones, that we can reach and prune without causing harm. This way, we’re not just taking; we’re also helping the tree by encouraging new growth and removing any parts that might be damaged.

But it’s not just about the how; it’s also about the when. The rhythm of the seasons guides us, with early spring and late fall being the most potent times for harvesting. This is when the tree’s energy is most vibrant, and we can gather the bark and other tree parts in a way that’s in harmony with the tree’s natural cycles.

As we forage for medicinal trees and their uses, it’s more than just collecting; it’s about forming a relationship with the land. It’s about asking permission, not just assuming that we can take what we want. It’s about offering gratitude, acknowledging the gift we’re receiving. This deepens our connection to the land and the plants, reminding us that we’re not separate from nature but a part of it.

Knowledge is also key. Knowing which tree to harvest from, how to do it sustainably, and how to use what we gather responsibly ensures that we’re not just taking care of the trees but also of ourselves and our communities. Sharing this knowledge, and the bounty of our harvest, keeps the cycle of giving and receiving flowing, strengthening the bonds within our community and with the natural world.

In merging the art of ethical bark harvesting with the broader principles of foraging for medicinal trees and their uses, we’re not just gathering tree medicine; we’re engaging in a practice that nourishes both the land and our souls. It’s a journey of learning, of giving back, and of deepening our connection with the earth, ensuring that the ancient wisdom of the trees continues to be a source of healing and inspiration for all of us.

Related Content: 9 Basic Principles of Ethical Wildcrafting for Beginners

pine cleaning
Medicinal trees and their uses: Me gathering pine medicine

Guide to Medicinal Trees and Their Uses

In this guide, you’ll discover 30 medicinal trees and their uses that thrive in the Northeast, each with its own unique healing properties. I’ve also woven in a few special plants like elderberry, spicebush, mapleleaf viburnum, and witch hazel. While technically more shrub-like, these plants can stretch up high, resembling small trees with their woody structures. They’re included here for their medicinal potential in our natural apothecary.

  1. Alder (Alnus spp.): Alder’s bark and leaves, rich in tannins, serve as potent anti-inflammatory agents. Traditionally, these parts have been used in skin washes to soothe irritations and in gargles to ease sore throats. Additionally, alder bark decoctions are utilized in treating lymphatic disorders and fevers, showcasing its versatile healing properties.
  2. Ash (Fraxinus spp.): Ash stands out for its diuretic and laxative properties. Infusions made from its leaves and bark provide relief from joint pain and aid digestion. Its historical use in treating gout and rheumatism highlights its anti-inflammatory benefits, making it a valuable component of herbal medicine.
  3. Basswood (Tilia americana): Known for its sedative and anti-inflammatory qualities, basswood’s flowers and leaves are commonly brewed into teas. These preparations are effective in reducing anxiety, promoting sleep, and treating colds, coughs, and headaches, providing a natural remedy for common ailments.
  4. Beech (Fagus grandifolia): The nutritive beech nuts and astringent bark offer unique health benefits. Beech bark tea aids in lung conditions and sore throats, while the oil from its nuts improves skin health, demonstrating the tree’s diverse medicinal uses.
  5. Birch (Betula spp.): Birch is renowned for its detoxifying and diuretic effects. Leaf teas address urinary tract infections and kidney stones, while its sap, rich in minerals, serves as a healthful tonic. Birch bark salves are applied to skin irritations, highlighting its multifaceted healing capabilities.
  6. Cedar (Thuja spp.): With potent antiseptic properties, cedar leaves and bark are integral in treating respiratory ailments and skin conditions. Leaf infusions act as an expectorant for coughs and as a wash for skin infections, underscoring cedar’s therapeutic potential.
  7. Dogwood (Cornus species): Dogwood’s bark has been traditionally used for its pain-relieving and fever-reducing qualities. A tea made from the bark can provide relief from aches and fevers, showcasing its role in traditional remedies.
  8. American Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis): Elderberry is celebrated for its immune-boosting properties. The berries are often used in syrups and teas to prevent and treat colds and flu, making it a staple in herbal medicine for bolstering the immune system.
  9. Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra): The inner bark of slippery elm, known for its soothing and nutritive properties, is a key ingredient in throat lozenges and digestive aids. Its ability to treat conditions like gastritis and ulcers highlights its medicinal importance.
  10. Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.): As a cardiotonic, hawthorn’s berries, flowers, and leaves enhance heart health. They’re used in tonics and teas to regulate blood pressure and improve circulation, with antioxidant properties that benefit the cardiovascular system.
  11. Hazelnut (Corylus spp.): Hazelnut’s astringent bark and oils contribute to skin care, offering nourishment and toning effects. Bark decoctions treat varicose veins and circulatory problems, demonstrating its therapeutic versatility.
  12. Hickory (Carya species): Hickory bark is known for its anti-rheumatic properties. Decoctions made from the bark can relieve arthritis and joint pain, showcasing its effectiveness in treating rheumatic conditions.
  13. Hop Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana): The bark of hop hornbeam, with its astringent properties, is used in treatments for sore throats and diarrhea, highlighting its role in gastrointestinal and respiratory remedies.
  14. Ironwood (Carpinus caroliniana): Ironwood’s bark, with astringent and anti-inflammatory properties, is utilized in treating fevers and reducing inflammation, and can be applied topically for skin issues like rashes and ulcers, emphasizing its medicinal value.
  15. Juniper (Juniperus communis): Juniper berries are known for their diuretic and antiseptic properties. They are used in remedies for urinary tract infections and digestive issues, showcasing their significance in herbal medicine.
  16. Linden (Tilia spp.): Linden’s sedative and diaphoretic effects make it a go-to for stress relief and cold treatments. Its flowers and leaves are used in teas that alleviate anxiety, hypertension, and flu symptoms, underlining its calming and healing benefits.
  17. Maple (Acer spp.): Beyond its culinary value, maple sap serves as a nutritive tonic, rich in minerals and antioxidants. It promotes general health and vitality, illustrating the tree’s nutritional contributions.
  18. Maple Leaf Viburnum (Virburnum acerifolium): The leaves and bark of maple leaf viburnum have been used traditionally for their anti-spasmodic and astringent properties, providing relief in muscle spasms and tightening tissues.
  19. Oak (Quercus spp.): Oak’s tannin-rich bark has astringent and antiseptic qualities, beneficial for digestive disorders and skin health. Ground acorns, used as a soothing skin agent, highlight oak’s diverse therapeutic uses.
  20. Pine (Pinus spp.): Pine’s needles, bark, and resin offer antiseptic and expectorant properties, making pine needle tea a remedy for respiratory issues and resin salves a choice for wound care, emphasizing its healing potency.
  21. Poplar (Populus spp.): Poplar buds and bark, containing analgesic salicin, are used in pain relief salves and anti-inflammatory teas, showcasing the tree’s significant medicinal contributions.
  22. Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana): Red cedar’s wood and berries possess antiseptic and diuretic properties. They are used in treatments for respiratory and urinary tract infections, highlighting the tree’s medicinal value.
  23. Spicebush (Lindera benzoin): Spicebush’s bark and berries are used for their fever-reducing and anti-inflammatory properties, making them effective in treating colds, fevers, and inflammations.
  24. Spruce (Picea species): Spruce tips are rich in Vitamin C and used in teas and syrups for their immune-boosting and expectorant properties, beneficial in treating respiratory ailments.
  25. Sumac (Rhus species): Sumac’s bark and leaves, known for their astringent properties, are used in gargles for sore throats and in dyes for their rich color, demonstrating the plant’s diverse applications.
  26. Tamarack (Larix laricina): Tamarack’s bark and resin are used for their antiseptic and expectorant qualities, making them effective in treating skin infections and respiratory conditions.
  27. Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides): Trembling aspen bark, containing pain-relieving salicin, is used in treatments for fevers, pain, and inflammation, underlining its medicinal significance.
  28. Walnut (Juglans spp.): Walnut leaves and husks, with antifungal and laxative effects, are used in skin condition treatments and intestinal health decoctions, highlighting the tree’s healing properties.
  29. Willow (Salix spp.): Willow bark, a source of salicin akin to aspirin, provides pain relief for headaches and arthritis, emphasizing its role in natural pain management.
  30. Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana): Renowned for its astringent and anti-inflammatory properties, witch hazel is extensively used in skincare and remedies for bruises and inflammation, showcasing its therapeutic efficacy.
tree hugger
Medicinal trees and their uses: Trees offer spiritual medicine

Spiritual Medicine of Medicinal Trees

Medicinal trees and their uses extend beyond their physical healing properties, embodying deep spiritual significance within Indigenous communities, such as the Nipmuck tribe. These medicinal trees are not only valued for their health benefits but also revered for their spiritual medicine, intricately woven into the cultural fabric and traditions of Indigenous peoples.

These sacred trees are perceived as living entities, each with its own distinct character, energy, and wisdom, meriting deep respect and gratitude. In the worldview of Indigenous cultures, the bond between humans and trees is reciprocal and intertwined. Trees are esteemed as elders, mentors, and forebears, offering wisdom, direction, and healing to those who seek their counsel and blessings. The practice of gathering from medicinal trees and their uses is conducted with profound reverence, expressing gratitude and respect, and celebrating the hallowed connection between humanity and the natural realm.

By embracing the spiritual medicine of medicinal trees and their uses, we not only enrich our comprehension of Indigenous cultural heritage but also cultivate a deep appreciation for the unity of all life forms. In preserving these venerable traditions, we honor the legacy of our forebears and foster a more profound respect for the natural environment that supports and nurtures us all.

Medicinal trees and their uses: walnuts
what is witch hazel for
Medicinal trees and their uses: witch hazel

Concluding Thoughts: Medicinal Trees and their Uses

In closing, the exploration of medicinal trees and their uses reveals their profound healing potential and cultural significance. These natural treasures, cherished for generations, underscore the importance of ethical foraging practices to preserve their sustainability and honor Indigenous wisdom. Amidst our reliance on modern solutions, this journey reconnects us with the enduring power of nature, fostering a deeper appreciation for its remedies. Let us carry forward this knowledge and respect, integrating the healing properties of medicinal trees and their uses into our lives, while ensuring their preservation for future generations to explore and appreciate.


“NativeTech: Indigenous Plants & Native Uses in the Northeast.”, 2024, Accessed 7 Feb. 2024.

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Elias, Thomas S. and Peter A Dykeman
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Foster, Steven and James A. Duke
2014 A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants; Eastern and Central North America.
Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston/New York.

Hutchens, Alma R.
1991 Indian Herbalogy of North America; The definitive guide to Native medicinal plants and their uses. Shambhala: Boston.Shambhala: Boston.

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