horsetail plant - equisetum hyemale

Horsetail Plant: Identification, Uses, Benefits

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horsetail plant - equisetum hyemale

There’s a special place in Eastern Connecticut where I love to forage for both edible and medicinal plants.  So far, I have found mugwort, stinging nettle, yarrow, Japanese knotweed, spicebush, ramps, bee balm, yellow trout lily, elderberry, raspberry, blueberry, and the remarkable horsetail plant. 

This area is not just my favorite foraging spot; it’s an outdoor classroom where nature unfolds its secrets one season at a time. Today, as I set out to harvest horsetail, I’m eager to share with you the knowledge and insights I’ve gathered about this extraordinary plant.

Horsetail (Equisetum spp.), with its unique reed-like appearance and silica-rich stems, is a living fossil from the Paleozoic era (we’re talking close to 400 million years ago). It used to grow 130 feet tall! Can you imagine?

Traditionally used for its diuretic and wound-healing properties by ancient civilizations and indigenous tribes alike, horsetail has been cherished for strengthening hair, bones, and nails. Today, it finds applications in cosmetics and agriculture, showcasing its versatility and enduring relevance.

As we learn to identify horsetail’s different shoots, explore its many uses, and discover the best ways to harvest and prepare it, this guide will provide you with all the knowledge you need to make the most of this plant. Whether you’re an experienced herbalist or a passionate forager like myself, getting to know horsetail will deepen your botanical understanding and increase your appreciation for the wonders nature offers.

horsetail plant - equisetum hyemale
Identifying horsetail plant - Equisetum Hyemale

Identifying Horsetail Plant

There are actually several varieties of horsetail plants, but two of the most common in Connecticut are Equisetum arvense and Equisetum hyemale. While both have their uses and share some similarities, they have distinct appearances. Today, we’ll be focusing on identifying Equisetum hyemale, also known as scouring rush. Keep reading to learn how to recognize this unique perennial:

  • Habitat: Horsetail thrives in wet, sandy soils. It often grows near streams, rivers, and marshy areas where the soil remains consistently moist. In my foraging spot, I’ve found that the areas with horsetail are also rich in other moisture-loving plants, which indicates the right environment for foraging this plant.
  • Stems: The most striking feature of Equisetum hyemale is its hollow, green stems. These vertical shoots can reach up to 3 feet tall and are segmented, resembling a bamboo stalk. Unlike most plants, they have no flowers or leaves.
  • Ridges and Sheaths: Equisetum hyemale’s stems are marked with prominent vertical ridges. These ridges give the plant a rough texture, earning it the nickname “scouring rush” as it was historically used for scouring pots. At each segment, you’ll find a black or brownish sheath wrapping around the stem.
  • Evergreen or Deciduous: Equisetum hyemale can be evergreen in warmer climates, keeping its green stems year-round. In colder areas, the stems may die back in winter and return in spring.
  • Vegetative vs. Fertile Shoots: One of the intriguing aspects of the horsetail plant is its lifecycle, marked by two distinct types of shoots—vegetative and fertile. In early spring, the shorter, non-photosynthetic fertile shoots appear first, topped with spore-producing cones. After these shoots release their spores, they die back, making way for the green, photosynthetic vegetative shoots that last throughout the season. These vegetative shoots, commonly used in herbal remedies, are most lush by summer, marking the best time for harvesting. Observing horsetail through the seasons has deepened my understanding of its growth patterns. 
horsetail plants look-alikes

Equinsetum Hyemale Look-alike

There are other horsetail species that Equisetum hyemale can resemble. However, a key identifier is the presence of those rough, vertical ridges on green stems. If the stems feel smooth, it’s likely a different species.

horsetail plant - equisetum hyemale

Health Benefits of Horsetail Plant

As I’ve come to discover, horsetail isn’t just versatile in its uses; it’s also regarded as having various potential health benefits. Here’s an exploration of how this ancient plant is thought to support health and wellness:

  • Bone Health: Horsetail is often celebrated for its potential role in supporting bone health due to its rich silica content. It’s believed to assist in the formation and maintenance of healthy bones. Some people consider incorporating horsetail into their routines, especially during periods requiring extra support for bone density, such as during intense gardening seasons.
  • Diuretic Properties: Horsetail is known for its natural diuretic properties, which are thought to help reduce fluid retention. This makes it a popular choice for those looking to manage urinary tract health and reduce bloating.
  • Antioxidant Effects: Rich in antioxidants, horsetail is believed to help combat oxidative stress, a factor in aging and many chronic conditions. Many people consume horsetail tea as a way to boost their antioxidant intake, supporting overall cellular health and vitality.
  • Wound Healing: Traditionally, horsetail has been used for its wound-healing properties. It can be applied topically in a poultice or as an infusion to clean wounds. Its antimicrobial properties and ability to promote collagen synthesis are thought to be beneficial for skin care and recovery from minor cuts and abrasions.
  • Hair and Nail Health: Many people find that horsetail improves hair and nail strength. The high silica content is believed to promote healthy hair growth and fortify nails, reducing brittleness.

While the horsetail plant is valued in many health regimens, it’s important to remember that its benefits are based on both tradition and some scientific research. Always consult with a healthcare professional before incorporating new herbs into your health routine.

horsetail tea plant - equisetum hyemale

Harvesting and Preparing Horsetail Plant

Harvesting horsetail responsibly and preparing it correctly are crucial steps to ensure that you get the most benefits from the plant while preserving its natural habitat. Here’s how I approach these tasks:

  1. When to Harvest: Timing is critical when harvesting horsetail. The best time to collect the plant is in late spring when the shoots are young and tender, especially if you’re planning to use them for culinary purposes. For medicinal uses, I prefer to wait until the summer when the vegetative (green) shoots are fully mature and rich in silica and other nutrients.
  2. Choosing the Right Spot: It’s important to harvest horsetail from clean, unpolluted areas, as the plant is known to absorb heavy metals from the soil. I always ensure that my foraging spots are away from roadsides, industrial areas, and heavily treated agricultural lands.
  3. How to Harvest: Horsetail has a deep root system, which makes it resilient but also means it can quickly regrow after cutting. I use scissors or shears to snip the stems near the base, taking care not to uproot the plant to preserve the colony.
  4. Preparation for Use: After harvesting, I wash the shoots thoroughly to remove any dirt or insects. For medicinal and cosmetic applications, dry the horsetail stems completely in a dehydrator before using them to make teas, tinctures, or powders. This drying process concentrates the beneficial compounds and extends the shelf life of the preparations.
  5. Storing Horsetail: Proper storage is key to maintaining the potency of horsetail. Store dried horsetail in airtight containers away from light and moisture. This way, it can last for up to a year without losing its effectiveness.

Safety Considerations:

Horsetail is potent, so start with small amounts to see how your body reacts, particularly for its diuretic effects. It contains thiaminase, which can cause thiamine deficiency if used heavily or long-term, leading to symptoms like fatigue and confusion. Opt for thiaminase-free supplements to reduce risks. 

Horsetail can also interact with diuretics, anti-diabetes medications, and drugs that increase bleeding risks. Always consult a healthcare provider before mixing it with other medications. If you have conditions like gout, incontinence, or osteoarthritis, be mindful of potential side effects and interactions, especially regarding kidney health and mineral balance.


The Outdoor Apotheca website is intended for informational purposes only and should not be considered a substitute for professional medical advice. The information provided is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease. While we strive to provide accurate and up-to-date information, it is the reader’s responsibility to ensure proper plant identification and usage.

Please be aware that some plants are poisonous or can have serious adverse health effects. We are not health professionals, medical doctors, or nutritionists. It is essential to consult with qualified professionals for verification of nutritional information, health benefits, and any potential risks associated with edible and medicinal plants mentioned on this website.

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