Hugelkultur

Hugelkultur: An Amazing Permaculture Gardening Technique

Have you ever heard of hugelkultur raised beds? If not, you’re in for a real treat! Hugelkultur is an amazing permaculture gardening technique that utilizes wood and organic matter to create a living, self-sustaining soil-building system. This low-maintenance gardening system is perfect for anyone interested in growing their own vegetables and herbs, as well as for those looking to create a beautiful, natural, sustainable landscape. In this blog post, we’ll discuss the basics of building a hugelkultur bed, what makes it different from traditional raised beds, and the many benefits of this unique gardening technique. So, let’s get started!

Hugelkultur

Introduction

You want your garden to look great, and you want to create a space that you can enjoy every day. But how do you do it? 

There are lots of ways to make your garden look and produce better. Some are easy, some can be a bit of a challenge, but all of them are good choices. Before you get started, the first thing you need to do is set some realistic goals for yourself. This means knowing what you can and cannot do in your garden based on your space requirements, schedule, time and budget. 

No matter whether you’re new or experienced in gardening, hold on tight because there’s a lot to learn! Be prepared to meet one of the most interesting methods and ideas that might change the way you think about gardening—hugelkultur. Today we’ll talk about why it’s one of the best choices for your garden!

What is hugelkultur?

When I first heard the term hugelkultur, I thought it was a type of calming method. It turns out that it is not, but it is a method of building raised garden beds! Hugelkultur is a method of gardening where the soil is shaped into mounds. The word “hugelkultur” (pronounced hoogle-culture or hoogle-cool-tour) is German for “hill mound” or “hill culture.”

Creating Your Hugelkultur Bed

Hugelkultur raised beds have been used for a long time now and are an effective and sustainable way to garden. They involve constructing a raised bed by stacking logs and branches in a mound shape and then layering soil, compost, and mulch over the top. 

What makes this technique so great is that the logs and branches act as a sponge, retaining moisture and slowly releasing it to the soil. The decomposing wood then provides nutrients to the soil. 

Below are the steps that we took for building our bed. There are many ways to design a Hugelkultur bed, and for us the most important part was utilizing the organic matter that we already had. Consider what you have on your property and how you can use it to layer organic matter and create an epic Hugelkultur bed. Think about the bed as layers of organic material on top of rotting wood.

 

 

Hugelkultur
The cleared woodlot

Step 1) Start with a good base

We decided to build our hugelkultur on some land we cleared for our future fruit orchard and native plant garden. We decided to utilize a 20 foot long fallen tree that has been decomposing for several years as the base for our garden bed. 

If you are building your bed in your yard, start by digging up any sod (save it for step 3). Next, dig a trench 12 to 18 inches deep, keeping the same depth the full length of the bed. Beds need to be narrow enough that you can reach to the center; we’d suggest no more than 4 feet across. Add the largest logs, branches and longest decomposing material to the bottom of the trench. This will be your base layer.

Hugelkultur
Layers of rotting wood and twigs

Step 2) Add Branches and Twigs

Add a layer of branches and twigs. A mix of hard and softwoods is recommended, but it’s best to avoid certain types of wood, leaves, or chips. These pose a risk to your plants. Some allelopathic trees include walnut (particularly black walnut), eucalyptus, tree of heaven, Manzanita, sugar maple, red oak, sycamore, goldenrod, American elm and pepper tree. Leaves from these plants can potentially pose a risk to your plants. While they do eventually compost down and lose the dangerous compounds, it’s just better to avoid them from the outset.

Hugelkultur
Building the mound

Step 3) Layer it on

Like constructing a lasagna garden on top of wood, layer on organic material such as grass and grass clippings—or any other organic material—and pack firmly. If you’ve removed turf, place it root side up on the wood. Fill in any cracks or air spaces with grass, leaf litter, compost, and manure.

Hugelkultur
Compost/soil to be added in the spring

Step 4) Add your soil

Next, add at least  soil and pack it on and as tightly as possible. Adding the right amount of topsoil to a hugelkultur raised bed is very important for ensuring healthy plant growth. Generally speaking, you should aim to add a layer of topsoil that is at least 8-10 inches deep, although it can be deeper if you wish. This top layer of soil should be composed of a mix of compost, aged manure, and a nutrient-rich topsoil. This combination of materials will help your plants to get all the nutrients they need to thrive.

The pile can be as long and high as you like, but I suggest a 2- to 3-foot high bed, as it’s easier to work with (and can last without water for two or three weeks). Mine’s probably closer to 4 feet tall. Luckily, we have a tractor to help make the task of adding soil to the top layer much easier. 

Step 5) Water it in

Make sure you water your bed thoroughly after adding the topsoil to help it settle and to encourage the roots of your plants to spread through it.

Step 6) Top it off

Finally, top off the bed with a layer of mulch. Adding a layer of mulch to your hugelkultur garden bed is incredibly important. Mulch helps to maintain the moisture levels in the soil, protect it from the sun, and provide nutrients to the plants. It also helps to reduce weeds, which can otherwise take over your garden. Furthermore, mulch can improve the soil’s texture, allowing for better air and water movement, and can also encourage earthworms and other beneficial microorganisms. All of these benefits make mulching an essential part of maintaining any hugelkultur garden bed.

The best thing about this method is that it allows you to utilize permaculture techniques to reduce the amount of materials needed to fill your hugelkultur beds. At the same time, you’re able to utilize some of the branches, logs, and other woody material you might have lying around. If done right, the hugelkultur portion of your bed should be free of charge and will save you some money

The Benefits of Hugelkulture Gardening

  • The soil is loose and well aerated. This slows freezing of the soil in cold areas.
  • The method of hilling or sloping the raised bed increased the surface area, allowing more area for growing. This is particularly in small gardens with limited space.
  • Increased water retention in soil, reducing the need for frequent watering. The wood acts like a sponge and balances moisture levels.
  • Improved soil fertility and nutrients due to the breakdown of woody material in the bed. Even vegetables with a high demand of nutrients can be grown without the use of additional fertilizer.
  • Great way to use up branches, small logs, wood chips, scrap lumber, and virtually any other woody material you have.
  • Reduced weed growth and competition for water and nutrients.
  • Reduced labor for soil preparation and maintenance.
  • The decomposition of the wood inside creates heat, which in turn warms up the soil quicker in the spring, allowing for an earlier start of growth and earlier harvests.
  • Increased biodiversity due to the range of plants and microorganisms supported.
  • Aesthetically pleasing addition to any garden or outdoor space.
Hugelkultur

Does hugelkultur really work?

Yes! This incredible method of hugelkultur can bring some spectacular benefits to you. This method can help you keep the moisture in one place, boost fertility, and even maximize the surface needed for the plants to grow without any obstruction.

The hugelkultur raised beds are excellent in giving your plants the moisture they need through their growing season. The wood you use in creating these raised beds provides nutrients that the plants can use for a long time, and the wood can also provide plenty of heat, meaning the growing season of the plants can be extended this way. So, if you are looking for a way to make the most out of all your plants for the season, this is most likely the best way to make it happen.

How long do hugelkultur beds last?

 

A hugelkultur raised bed can last much longer than other raised bed techniques due to the way it is constructed, and is a great way to add nutrients to your garden over time. The decomposition of the organic materials in your hugelkultur bed depends on a few factors, such as the type of wood used, the climate and the amount of water available. 

The process of decomposition adds organic matter to the soil, which in turn provides nutrients for the plants in the garden. As the wood is slowly broken down, it also helps to improve the soil structure, increasing drainage and aeration. Overall, hugelkultur raised beds provide a great way to add organic matter and nutrients to your garden over time.

Typically, a hugelkultur bed will last from around eight to 10 years. However, if you are able to use hardwood trees, you may get as many as 20 years of great gardening out of it. Compared to other raised bed techniques, such as the more common wooden beds, hugelkultur beds offer greater longevity and are an excellent, sustainable option for your gardening needs. 

How often should I water my hugelkultur bed?

A hugelkultur raised bed is an excellent way to grow your plants without needing to water them very often. The mound of wood and soil acts as a sponge, absorbing and holding moisture, which is then released slowly over time. This means that you don’t need to water your plants very often and more water stays in the soil, promoting healthy root growth. 

The mound also provides exceptional drainage, so if you do water, or if there are heavy rains it will easily drain off the mound and not accumulate. 

Remember that in the first years, right after you have created the hugelkultur bed, there is something called the heat-producing composting process, which warms the soil. This provides a longer growing season, and it is all thanks to the decaying wood matter. The wood is added as a long-term solution, releasing nutrients into the soil very slowly. You can take advantage of beneficial microorganisms and nutrients in the soil without the need for fertilizer.

Hugelkultur gardening beds are also self-tiling over time. Over the years, the wood material slowly breaks down, and the tiny air pockets open up in the crumbling soil. This is how air reaches the roots of plants growing in hugelkultur beds. 

Hugelkultur

How deep should hugelkultur beds be?

Depth is also another consideration you should think about. The combined layers of organic materials on top of the wood should be at least 12″ deep and anywhere from 2–4 feet wide. The depth is important to ensure that there is enough soil to support the root systems of the plants you will be growing. The width is significant because it will give your plants enough space to grow and spread out their roots. 

Additionally, the shape and size of your hugelkultur raised bed can be customized to fit whatever space is available in your yard or garden. Hugelkultur raised beds are a great way to maximize the productivity of a limited space, so it’s essential to plan out the size and shape carefully.

What grows well in hugelkultur?

Hugelkultur beds provide excellent conditions for various plants. All you need to remember is that the north side provides a sun trap, so focus on adding the plants that do not need a lot of sunshine there. The top can provide well-drained soil and be an exceptional space for all those plants that require good drainage. On the other hand, the plants that require a lot of water can be planted at the base of the hugelkultur. This is where most of the water is stored. 

We plan to use ours to grow squash, pumpkins and any other plants that tend to take up too much space in our other vegetable garden. 

Hugelkultur
Hugelkultur
Hugelkultur

The bottom line

Gardening is a great hobby, but it can also be challenging as well. It takes a lot of research and experimentation to find the perfect combination of plants, soil, and equipment that works for you. I hope that this post has provided many useful tips for starting a raised hugelkultur bed.

I am sure that now you wish to discover more about the subject, so if you want to read more articles about permaculture and gardening, feel free to browse through my blog!

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